Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs


Used with IDEAL Academy for An Ever Better LifeStyle and World programs inspiring Success Engineering and Authentic Wealth in ALL Forms

"Proper management of the work-lives of human beings, of the way in which they earn their living, can improve them and improve the world, and in this sense be a utopian or revolutionary technique." - Abraham Maslow

In Abraham Maslow's 1943 paper 'A Theory of Human Motivation' he proposed a hierarchy of needs... which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance from survive to thriving... Each of us is motivated to provided for our needs. Our most basic needs are inborn survival needs. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps us identify our Human Needs and explain how these needs motivate us all to achieve ever-more knowledge, think and reason ever-more wisely, acquire ever-more and ever-better skills, creating ever-better conditions in which to live with ever-more grace, elegance and ease. Often pyramids reflect Maslow's observations of 5 primary stages, and ignore expanding or clarifying motivators categories within other stages especically around Self-Actualization stage; specifically Cognitive and Aesthetic Needs Motivation as levels incompassed within Self-actualization, and levels beyond Self-actualization... Transcendence, Success of Offspring, Posterity, and Legacy... As we gain ever-more self-understanding we shall 'label' ever more additional stages and aspects of motivation in the Hierarchy of Needs.

Motivations are BOTH Internal and External... Elders inspire us to use our senses, think and reason... suggest and show us where to look... remind us what to appreciate, respect and love. Perhaps our Elders most profound service is attracing our attention toward that which we haven't noticed on our own in the realms of our internal and external enviroment. Comprehending all environmental realms has become a profession and field of academic study. We Environmental Practitioners today draw inspiration from the legacy of many past conservationists, scientists, and writers who cared for the earth and heeded its future dangers. The legacy of their love inspires continuing passion for this work. Among those who drastically expanded our self-knowledge is Abraham Maslow.

Abraham Maslow studied what he termed "exemplary people", such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass, rather than mentally ill or neurotic people. He wrote that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy." Maslow also studied the healthiest one percent of the college student population, which he comments about in his book, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature...

Abraham Maslow had an optimistic and humanistic view of humanity. He regarded people’s innate drive towards self-actualization beneficial to society as a whole. In Abraham Maslow’s view, once people’s basic needs were met, they were free to explore their abilities and strive to further develop those innate abilities. Driven by MetaMotivation, people are more spontaneous and free to be ourselves, while exploring our ultimate potentials and creating a fulfilled life.

Not all people that satisfy basic needs automatically become driven by Basic Needs. In his landmark book, 'Farther Reaches of Human Nature', Maslow stated that people who are self-actualizing and driven by MetaMotivation "are dedicated people, devoted to some task 'outside themselves,' some vocation, or duty, or beloved job".

MetaMotivation is a term coined by Abraham Maslow to describe the motivation of people who are self-actualized and striving beyond the scope of their Being Needs to reach their full potential. Maslow suggested that a human is initially motivated by a series of basic needs, called the 'hierarchy of needs'. Maslow states, "Self-actualizing people are gratified in all their basic Being Needs (of belongingness, affection, respect, and self-esteem)". Once a person has successfully navigated the hierarchy of needs thus satisfying all their basic Being Needs, Maslow proposed they then travel "a path called growth motivation".

The Hierarchy of Needs theory has been perpertually proving valid for understanding our selves and others, our human motivations, personal development, activities management training in play and work, et cetera. Always relevant are Abraham Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of entrepreneurs and employers to provide workplace environments that encourage and enable participants to fulfil personal unique potential (self-actualization).

Maslow suggests there are distinctions between the motives of those who operate at or below the level of self-actualization (people striving for their basic needs, or people who have met basic needs but still live without purpose), and those who are self-actualized who are also with significant purpose, as their motivations differ significantly. Deficiency Needs (D-needs) motivate people to satisfy physiological needs such as hunger, sex, love; whereas Being Needs (B-needs) propel a person beyond self-actualization and drive them to fulfill their inherent ultimate potential.

A short definition from the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology suggests that transpersonal psychology "is concerned with the study of humanity's highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness."

According to Abraham Maslow, human beings have lower order needs that in general must be fulfilled before high order needs can be satisfied: 'six sets of needs - physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization and transcendence'. As a person moves up Maslow's hierarchy of needs, eventually they may reach the summit — self actualization/transcendence.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs begins with the most basic necessities deemed "the physiological needs" in which the individual must be able to perform life-expressions basic functions such as breathing, suckling, and sleeping, then will seek out items like food and water. Once these needs have been met, a person can move on to fulfilling "the safety needs", where they will attempt to obtain a sense of security, physical comforts and shelter, employment, and property. The next level is "the belongingness and love needs", where people will strive for social acceptance, affiliations, a sense of belongingness and being welcome, sexual intimacy, and perhaps a family. Next are "the esteem needs", where the individual will desire a sense of competence, recognition of achievement by peers, and respect from others. Some argue that once these needs are met, an individual is primed for self actualization. Others maintain that there are two more phases an individual must progress through before self actualization can take place. These include "the cognitive needs", where a person will desire knowledge and an understanding of the world around them, and "the aesthetic needs" which include a need for "symmetry, order, and beauty". When all these needs have been satisfied, the final stages of Maslow's hierarchy — self actualization and transcendence — is enabled to take place.

CAUTION: Avoid confusion about needs within healthy and dysfunctional beings... Classical Adlerian individual psychotherapy, (named for Alfred Adler b. February 7, 1870 – d. May 28, 1937) brief therapy, couple therapy, and family therapy follow parallel paths for treating dysfunctional beings. Clients are encouraged to overcome their feelings of insecurity, develop deeper feelings of connectedness, and to redirect their striving for significance into more socially beneficial directions. Through a respectful Socratic dialogue, they are challenged to correct mistaken assumptions, attitudes, behaviors and feelings about themselves and the world. Constant encouragement stimulates clients to attempt what was previously felt as impossible. The growth of confidence, pride, and gratification leads to a greater desire and ability to cooperate. The objective of Classical Adlerian psychotherapy is to replace exaggerated self-protection, self-enhancement, and self-indulgence with courageous social contribution.

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy promotes this level of psychological development, utilizing the foundation of a 12-stage therapeutic model to realistically satisfy the basic needs, leading to an advanced stage of "meta-therapy," creative living, and self/other/task-actualization. Gestalt therapy, acknowledging that 'Kurt Goldstein first introduced the concept of the organism as a whole ', built on the assumption that 'every individual, every plant, every animal has only one inborn goal - to actualize itself as it is'.

Maslow's writings are used as inspirational resources that help identify Meta-motivation, Meta-needs and Meta-pathology. The key to Maslow's writings is understanding that there are no keys. Self Actualization is predicated on the individual having their lower deficiency needs met. Once a person has moved through feeling and believing that they are deficient, they naturally seek to grow into who they are, that is self-actualize.

Wikipedia offers the following information about Meta-motivation, Meta-needs and Meta-pathology...

Meta-Motivation is what motivates and impels an individual toward self-actualization and excellence. Meta-motivation is distinct from motivation operating in the lower level needs, and it emerges after the lower needs are satisfied. These lower motivations, which Maslow calls "deficiency motivations" or D-Motivations, are described as the type of motivation that operates on the lower four levels of his hierarchy of needs. These deficiency motivations are drives that arise when a physiological or psychological deficit is perceived, leading towards actions to alleviate tension and restore equilibrium.

Maslow describes a Meta-need as any need for knowledge, beauty, or creativity. Meta-needs are involved in self-actualization and comprise the highest level of needs, coming into play primarily after the lower level needs have been met. In Maslow hierarchy, Meta-needs is associated with impulses for self-actualization.

Maslow's list of Meta-needs:

  • Wholeness (unity)
  • Perfection (balance and harmony)
  • Completion (ending)
  • Justice (fairness)
  • Richness (complexity)
  • Simplicity ( essence)
  • Liveliness (spontaneity)
  • Beauty (rightness of form)
  • Goodness (benevolence)
  • Uniquiness (individuality)
  • Playfulness (ease)
  • Truth (reality)
  • Autonomy (self-sufficiency)
  • Meaningfulness (values).

Metapathology is thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds. Metapathology prevents self-actualizers from expressing, using and fulfilling their potential. Reasons people may NOT become self-actualized include: poor childhoods, lower economic conditions, inadequate education, anxieties, fears, and the Jonah Complex.

Jonah Complex is the fear of success which prevents self-actualization.
Causes

  • Fear of the sense of responsibility that often attends recognizing our own greatness, talents, potentials.
  • Fear that an extraordinary life would be out of the ordinary, and hence not acceptable to others.
  • Fear of seeming arrogant, self-centered, etc.

Etymology
Name probably comes from the Biblical story of Prophet Jonah's evasion of the destiny to prophesy the destruction of Ninevah. (RE: Matthew, chapter 12 verses 39-41 in King James Version of Bible and Book of Jonah in the Hebrew Bible

Many Marketing Courses teach Abraham Maslow's hierarchy as one of the first theories as a basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. Marketers have historically looked towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the market. If producers design products meeting consumer needs, consumers will more often choose those consumer-need products over those of competitors. Whichever product better fills the void created by the need will be chosen more frequently, thus increasing sales.

Understanding strengths and weakness identified within Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is also important in the field of cross-cultural communications and international commerce. There are many values gained from evaluating the different needs, values, drives and priorities of people from different countries - individualistic or collectivist. WHAT motivates people to 'buy' in various cultures can be vastly different, thus the marketplace must offer in alignment with cultural based motivators... It also illustrates how differences in values can greatly affect work atmosphere and work ethic between cultures: For example, societal cultures in many individualistic countries, such as the United States, may lead to an advantage in technological research and development. Many collectivistic societal cultures, such as that in Japan, may result in an advantage in workforce organization, quality control of products and service, and establishment of good relationships among contractees, suppliers and customers.

The reader might already have encountered on this website information about life-style balancing using the "CUBE Paradigm".... Because a CUBE functions easily in comprehending balance within our life-expressions -- that all areas (6 sides of cube) must stay equal in size to remain as a "cube", as one area expands or contracts, so too must they all; unbalance life-expressions cause a person to easily become dyfucntional. Thus Darlene Sartore, Dean of IDEAL Academy for Ever-Better LifeStyles and An Ever Better World, places these survive and thrive factors into 6 categories, and suggests after studying information within this presentation to combine these categories as most efficiently facilitate personal growth and peronally makes the most 'sense' at this stage of development... for example: combining the Basic Needs already well-balanced, or combining Esteem and Self-actualization plus combining Self-transcendence, Aesthetic Needs and Success of offspring and Legacy. Transpersonal Business Studies.... i.e.

Let's review some of Abraham Maslow's observations...

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the first lower level is being associated with Physiological Needs (Physical Needs), while the top levels are termed Growth Needs associated with Psychological Needs (Mental/Emotional Needs). Deficiency needs must be met first. Once these are met, seeking to satisfy Growth Needs drives Personal Growth. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized and will no longer have intense motivator influences... What has been acquired is no longer thought about to any great extent.... If a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance and (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.

Chilean economist and philosopher Manfred Max Neef has also argued that "poverty is the result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled".

Deficiency needs
The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs". With the exception of the lowest needs, physiological ones, if the deficiency needs are not met, the body gives no indication of it physically, but the individual feels anxious and tense. These deficiency needs are: physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, and esteem.

Safety needs
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take over and dominate their behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, having access to affordable health care services, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like.

For the most part, physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in the "First World" countries. The obvious exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream — the poor and the disadvantaged. If frustration has not led to apathy and weakness, such people still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups.

Safety and Security needs include:

Social Belongingness and Love needs
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social... Sense of Community... This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as:

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs ("Safety in numbers"), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and Clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, ignores the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

Esteem needs
All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect, and to respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Aesthetic needs
The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for self-actualization is the final need that manifests when lower level needs have been satisfied.

The ancient Chinese tapped into Aesthetic needs in Self-Actualization with Feng_shui... Landscape Ecologists and Architects, along with many Environmental Scientists, find traditional feng shui an interesting study. In many cases, the only remaining patches of old forest in Asia are "feng shui woods," often associated with cultural heritage, historical continuity, and the preservation of species. Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the "healthy homes," sustainability, and environmental components of ancient feng shui, should not be easily dismissed.

Self-actualization
A level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place. The term was used by Abraham Maslow in his article, 'A Theory of Human Motivation'. Maslow defines self-actualization to be: the full realization of one's potential.. the desire for self-fulfillment, namely the tendency for an individual to become actualized in what the being has potentially.... intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately of what is the organism itself... self-actualization is growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated as are Basic Needs. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Maslow used the term self-actualization to describe a desire, not a driving force, that could lead to realizing one's capabilities. Maslow did not feel that self-actualization determined one's life; rather, he felt that it gave the individual a desire, or motivation to achieve budding ambitions... This explanation emphasizes the fact that self-actualization cannot normally be reached until other lower order necessities of Maslow's hierarchy of needs are satisfied. While Goldstein defined self-actualization as a driving force, Maslow uses the term to describe personal growth that takes place once lower order needs have been met, one corollary being that, in his opinion, 'self-actualisation...rarely happens... certainly in less than 1% of the adult population'. The fact that 'most of us function most of the time on a level lower than that of self-actualization he called the psychopathology of normality'.

Maslow considered self-actualizing people to possess 'an unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, and the dishonest in personality, and in general to judge the people correctly and efficiently'.

Common traits amongst people who have reached self-actualization are:

For Kurt Goldstein, self-actualization was a motive and, for Abraham Maslow, a level of development; for both roughly the same kinds of qualities were expressed: independence, autonomy, a tendency to form few but deep friendships, a "philosophical" sense of humor, a tendency to resist outside pressures and a general transcendence of the environment rather than "coping" with it. Self-actualization has been discussed by Schott in connection with Transpersonal business studies.

Self-transcendence
Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization, termed as: self-transcendence. "[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living at the level of Being... to have unitive consciousness and "plateau experience", serene and contemplative B-cognitions rather than climactic ones... and to have, or to have had, peak experience with illuminations or insights or cognitions which changed personal view of the world and of themselves.

Success of offspring
Maslow stated that the achievements and success of his offspring were more satisfying than the personal fulfillment and growth characterized in self-actualization.

Eupsychian Management
(pronounced you-sigh-key-un)

"I became an immediate convert -- Maslow's evidence is overwhelming. But to date very few people have paid much attention." -- Peter Drucker, 1999 - (RE: Peter Ferdinand Drucker -- b. November 19, 1909 – d. November 11, 2005) -- The need to manage business by balancing a variety of needs and goals, (rather than subordinating an institution to a single value) are within the concept of 'management by objectives' forms the keynote of his 1954 landmark The Practice of Management.

"Eupsychian Management... could be regarded as Maslow's reply to Das Kapital." -- Colin Wilson, 1972 in New Pathways in Psychology

"He wrote it to bring McGregor and me down to earth." -- Peter Drucker, 1995

"Authoritarians must be converted or they must be excluded."

"It is only when people get righteously indignant over being swindled, that people will tend to stop swindling. If swindling pays, then it will not stop."

"The definition of a good society is one in which virtue pays."

"Proper management of the work lives of human beings, of the way in which they earn their living, can improve them and improve the world and in this sense be a utopian or revolutionary technique."

In his Eupsychian Management (p. 17, et. seq.), Abraham Maslow states:

These assumptions underlie Eupsychian Management Policy

1. Assume everyone is to be trusted.

2. Assume everyone is to be informed as completely as possible of as many facts and truths as possible, i.e., everything relevant to the situation.

3. Assume in all your people the impulse to achieve...

4. Assume that there is no dominance-subordination hierarchy in the jungle sense or authoritarian sense (or "baboon" sense).

5. Assume that everyone will have the same ultimate managerial objectives and will identify with them no matter where they are in the organization or in the hierarchy.

6. Eupsychian economics must assume good will among all the members of the organization rather than rivalry or jealousy.

6a. Synergy is also assumed.

7. Assume that the individuals involved are healthy enough.

8. Assume that the organization is healthy enough, whatever this means.

9. Assume the "ability to admire"...

10. We must assume that the people in eupsychian plants are not fixated at the safety-need level.

11. Assume an active trend to self-actualization -- freedom to effectuate one's own ideas, to select one's own friends and one's own kind of people, to "grow," to try things out, to make experiments and mistakes, etc.

12. Assume that everyone can enjoy good teamwork, friendship, good group spirit, good group homonomy, good belongingness, and group love.

13. Assume hostility to be primarily reactive rather than character-based.

14. Assume that people can take it, that they are tough, stronger than most people give them credit for.

15. Eupsychian management assumes that people are improvable.

16. Assume that everyone prefers to feel important, needed, useful, successful, proud, respected, rather than unimportant, interchangeable anonymous, wasted, unused, expendable, disrespected.

17. That everyone prefers or perhaps even needs to love his boss (rather than to hate him), and that everyone prefers to respect his boss (rather than to disrespect him)...

18. Assume that everyone dislikes fearing anyone (more than he likes fearing anyone), but that he prefers fearing the boss to despising the boss.

19. Eupsychian management assumes everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper, a tool, a cork tossed about on the waves.

20. Assume a tendency to improve things, to straighten the crooked picture on the wall, to clean up the dirty mess, to put things right, make things better, to do things better.

21. Assume that growth occurs through delight and through boredom.

22. Assume preference for being a whole person and not a part, not a thing or an implement, or tool, or "hand."

23. Assume the preference for working rather than being idle.

24. All human beings, not only eupsychian ones, prefer meaningful work to meaningless work.

25. Assume the preference for personhood, uniqueness as a person, identity (in contrast to being anonymous or interchangeable).

26. We must make the assumption that the person is courageous enough for eupsychian processes.

27. We must make the specific assumptions of nonpsychopathy (a person must have a conscience, must be able to feel shame, embarrassment, sadness, etc.)

28. We must assume the wisdom and the efficacy of self-choice.

29. We must assume that everyone likes to be justly and fairly appreciated, preferably in public.

30. We must assume the defense and growth dialectic for all these positive trends that we have already listed above.

31. Assume that everyone but especially the more developed persons prefer responsibility to dependency and passivity most of the time.

32. The general assumption is that people will get more pleasure out of loving than they will out of hating (although the pleasures of hating are real and should not be overlooked).

33. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather create than destroy.

34. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than be bored.

35. We must ultimately assume at the highest theoretical levels of eupsychian theory, a preference or a tendency to identify with more and more of the world, moving toward the ultimate of mysticism, a fusion with the world, or peak experience, cosmic consciousness, etc.

36. Finally we shall have to work out the assumption of the metamotives and the metapathologies, of the yearning for the "B-values," i.e., truth, beauty, justice, perfection, and so on.

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Abe Maslow observed:

"The only happy people I know are the ones who are working well at something they consider important."

"Proper management of the work lives of human beings, of the way in which they earn their living, can improve them and improve the world and in this sense be a utopian or revolutionary technique."

"What shall we think of a well adjusted slave?"

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D-realm. Search For A New Capitalism... We need a different kind of capitalism. One that less unstable, destructuve, unequal and unaccountable. One of the best ways to generate ideas is to retrieve ideas long discarded. This pamphlet "Digging for the Future" was published by the Young Foundation in spring 2010. It argues people searching for a different kind of capitalism should look back to the ideas of the English radical Gerrard Winstanley, leader of the Diggers in the 1640s, to inspire an approach that would emphasise mutualism, localism, social justice and radical democracy.

The Post-Capitalist Organization - Third.ORG -- The purpose of Third.ORG is to inject eupsychian (pronounced you-sigh-key-un) activism and engineering into sick organizations. Pooled human motivation is the engine of any organization, yet our energies are being drained off and corrupted by sociopathic organizations. These are sick organizations and must be fixed.

These organizations have reduced human beings to slaves working for enrichment of D-realm executives (the "black holes" of modern society). The model worker is the "well-adjusted slave" who doesn't speak up, doesn't question authority, doesn't rock the boat, looks down, lives in fear, etc. This has made organizations motivationally hollow, inefficient and anomic. Nobody cares. Maslow caught this anomic spirit well when he said: "If it's not worth doing, it's not worth doing right." We deserve better.

Human beings are powered by B-values, which are nowhere to be found on the balance sheet. Properly tuning an organization for superiority involves not only the mechanical engineering of the physical processes, but also the B-calculus of human side of the house. When organizations are aware of and communicate their unique meaning and value to individuals, and demonstrate these values to communities and society as a whole, they build the B-gravity it takes to attract fighters and creative drivers.

Consulting and training at Third.ORG is rooted exclusively in Maslow's extensions to Douglas McGregor's "Theory Y" style of management, the eupsychian assumptions. Even though these assumptions are formidable and challenging, they deserve attention because only when they are fully developed in the culture of the organization can productivity reach the next level and also stabilize at that higher level and beyond. It's a quantum switch--turning the corner.

So Third.ORG stands strongly for Third Force leadership which focuses on human energy as well as appropriate physical technologies. To this end, we have developed the N-group (a variant of the traditional T-group) as the exclusive vehicle for development. We believe that this model is the only rational starting place for re-growing healthy organizations from the value cesspits that we have in many organizations today. N-groups build trust. Trust is the universal fuel and lubricant where human productivity is concerned.

As N-groups elect representatives to higher levels based on trust and demonstrated competence, new pathways for growth and creativity develop because individual strengths and aptitudes are correctly pooled with objective requirements of objective situations. New networks are "grown" rather than appointed and new leaders emerge from the process who are "naturals" because they are the most trusted and competent representatives of each group. And when these individuals form higher level N-groups, magic results. If you would like to explore possibilities with us, please advise

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The B-values
RE: p. 83 -- "Toward a Psychology of Being" (Second Edition) authored by Abraham Maslow
New York: Van Nostrand Rienhold (1968)
Library of Congress: 82-2071
ISBN: 0-442-03805-4 pbk.
Dedicated to Kurt Goldstein []

WHOLENESS (unity; integration; tendency to one-ness; interconnectedness; simplicity; organization; structure; dichotomy-transcendence; order);

PERFECTION (necessity; just-right-ness; just-so-ness; inevitability; suitability; justice; completeness; "oughtness");

COMPLETION (ending; finality; justice; "it's finished"; fulfillment; finis and telos; destiny; fate);

JUSTICE (fairness; orderliness; lawfulness; "oughtness");

ALIVENESS (process; non-deadness; spontaneity; self-regulation; full-functioning);

RICHNESS (differentiation, complexity; intricacy);

SIMPLICITY (honesty; nakedness; essentiality; abstract, essential, skeletal structure);

BEAUTY (rightness; form; aliveness; simplicity; richness; wholeness; perfection; completion; uniqueness; honesty);

GOODNESS (rightness; desireability; oughtness; justice; benevolence; honesty);

UNIQUENESS (idiosyncrasy; individuality; non-comparability; novelty);

EFFORTLESSNESS (ease; lack of strain, striving or difficulty; grace; perfect, beautiful functioning);

PLAYFULNESS (fun; joy; amusement; gaiety; humor; exuberance; effortlessness);

TRUTH (honesty; reality; (nakedness; simplicity; richness; oughtness; beauty; pure, clean and unadulterated; completeness; essentiality).

SELF-SUFFICIENCY (autonomy; independence; not-needing-other-than-itself-in-order-to-be-itself; self-determining; environment-transcendence; separateness; living by its own laws).

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Basics about Abraham Harold Maslow:

Abraham Harold Maslow (born April 1, 1908 Brooklyn, New York – died June 8, 1970 Menlo Park, California) He went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin in Madison to study psychology. At Wisconsin he pursued an original line of research, investigating primate dominance behaviour and sexuality. While there he married in December 1928. He went on to further research at Columbia University. Abraham Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College (1937 to 1951), Cornell University, and Brandeis University (1951 to 1969).. In New York he found two mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such "wonderful human beings" as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behaviour. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of a hierarchy of needs, metaneeds, metamotivation, self-actualizing persons, and peak experiences. Maslow became the leader of the humanistic school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, which he referred to as the "third force" -- beyond Freudian theory and behaviourism.

Quantum Jumping

Resources:

Hierarchy Of Needs -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs

Abraham Maslow Biography -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow

Abraham H. Maslow: Books, Articles, Audio/Visual, & His Personal Papers -- http://www.maslow.com/

http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm - Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000), clinical psychologist and pioneer of 'job enrichment', is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. Certain of his parallels can clearly be seen with Maslow.

http://www.maslow.orgMaslow. org

"People are not evil; they are schlemiels."

A schlemiel is a dummy, bumbler, dolt. A stupid individual.

Schlemiels are those often considered as clumsy, crooked, bad, evil, are really just dumb; retarded to some degree - not healthy specimens of the species. This form of reduction is deadly when mixed with cruelty and violence, especially when develops into cruel authoritarianism and dominance, as we have learned from Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Muammar al-Gaddafi and others.

"The good society is one in which virtue pays."

"What shall we think of a well-adjusted slave?"

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Some trivia about the term "schlemiel" ... In the beginning of each episode on a television show, "Laverne and Shirley" are seen skipping down the street, arm in arm, reciting a Yiddish-American hopscotch chant: "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Schlemiel! Schlimazel! Hasenpfeffer Incorporated!". This chant then leads into the series' theme song which is entitled "Making Our Dreams Come True" and is performed by Cyndi Grecco. -- A shlemiel is somebody who often spills his soup, a shlemazel is the person the rabbit soup lands on. - Even though the openng phrase is a typical nonsensical hopscotch or jump rope chant, the description of a schlemiel and a schlimazel does capture a certain aspect of the characters of "Laverne & Shirley." The opening sequence is very popular and has been parodied in many pop culture outlets, including the movie Wayne's World, where Garth and Wayne perform the theme song while visiting Milwaukee.

The phrase was just the introduction to the theme song "Making our Dreams Come True" as written by Norman Gimbel and Charles Fox. The rest of the lyrics can be found on the Blackcatter's "World of TV Theme Song Lyrics" website. http://www.cfhf.net/lyrics/laverne.htm

Schlemiel and schlimazel are Yiddish words, defined by the online Free Dictionary as follows.

Schlemiel. "A habitual bungler; a dolt"
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/schlemiel

Schlimazel. "An extremely unlucky or inept person; a habitual failure." http://www.thefreedictionary.com/schlimazel

"A schlimazel can be concisely described as a born loser. No discussion of schlimazel could be complete without mentioning his counterpart: schlemiel, a habitual bungler. They go together:

A schlimazel's toast always falls butter-side down. A schlemiel always butters the toast on both sides."

As for hasenpfeffer, that is a German word for "A highly seasoned stew of marinated rabbit meat"
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hasenpfeffer

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Nidus is latin meaning a "nest" and used figuratively for a place or source of origin or development.

But the biggest human tragedy is that most people simply do and think what they are told.

Hitler said: "What good fortune for those in power that people do not think."

We must engineer better leadership.

How?

Every action feeds the Zeitgeist

The Zeitgeist is the "spirit of the times." It's like waves of energy that pass through societies and spawn new realities, a la the cloud chamber. Huxley said it well: "We are all individual molecules of a great social gas."

With a little knowledge of good marketing techniques (i.e. social physics, social stoichiometry, etc.), one can accomplish a great deal. All you have to do is to understand the B-man.

The B-man is described fully in the work of Abe Maslow.

Pura Vida!

You get one point for curiosity, and I get one point for attention capture.

If you have what it takes, you will begin assimilating the concept.